Standard molecular formulation Cn(H2O)n
Were hydrates of carbon. only some carbohydrates have this empirical formulation: deoxysugars, aminosugars
Carbohydrate - polyhydroxy aldehyde, ketones.
Most carbohydrates are located naturally in bound kind rather than as easy sugars
Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, inulin, gums) Glycoproteins and proteoglycans (hormones, blood group substances, antibodies) Glycolipids (cerebrosides, gangliosides) Glycosides Nucleic acids
Category of sugars
Trioses, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses
Maltose, sucrose, lactose
3 to 9
Polysaccharides or perhaps glycans
D-Glucose in Nature
The most considerable carbohydrate is definitely D-glucose. Cellular material of organisms oxidize blood sugar for energy:
In animals surplus glucose can be converted to a polymer referred to as glycogen.
Disaccharides In hydrolysis offer two elements of monosaccharides E. g Sucrose (Cane sugar) Lactose (milk sugar) Maltose (malt sugar)
Starch, cellulose, glycogen On the hydrolysis of each and every of them, they yields large numbers of monosaccharides.
also referred to as simple sugars classified by simply 1 . the number of carbons and 2 . whether aldoses or perhaps ketoses many (99%) will be straight chain compounds D-glyceraldehyde is the simplest of the aldoses (aldotriose) all other sugars have ending ose (glucose, galactose, ribose, lactose, etc…)
• Basic formula (CH2O)n
• • • • •
Triose: n = 3 (e. g., glyceraldehyde) Tetrose: in = some Pentose: and = five (e. g., ribose) Hexose: n sama dengan 6 (e. g., glucose) Heptose: and = several
CONCEPTS OF ISOMERS
Two or more different chemical substances which contain precisely the same number and types of atoms as well as the same molecular weights.
Stereoisomers: Enantiomers and Diastereomers Stereoisomers Are not constitutional isomers since they have the constituent atoms connected in the same sequence! They simply differ in the arrangement of their atoms in space! Stereoisomers can be subdivided into two categories: Enantiomers: Are stereoisomers whose elements are reflect images of each and every other. (These are like the hands). The molecules of enantiomers are not superimposeable
Diastereomers: Will be stereoisomers that are not mirror photos of each additional as indicated in (Fig. ).
Represented by simply Fischer predictions
L H C C Um OH
Emil Fischer Nobel Prize 1902
D- and L- Note
Ahead of determination of absolute designs, the 19th century chemists assigned arbitrary designations to structures: HC O HC O
They would CH2OH
D- and L- Notation
If the ALSO group mounted on the bottom-most chirality middle is around the right, it is just a D-sugar:
The D- or L- together with the prevalent name from the monosaccharide totally describes the structure, since the relative configurations at all chirality centers can be implicit in the common name.
Aldotetroses include two chirality centers hence 22 sama dengan 4 stereoisomers:
Enantiomers and epimers
They would H C H H C C O ALSO OH OH YEA OH H C C C Um H L HO HO H They would these two aldotetroses are enantiomers. They are stereoisomers that are reflect images of each other C C C C C O They would H WOW OH HO HO HO H H C C C C C Um H They would H ALSO
CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH
these two aldohexoses are C-4 epimers. that they differ only in the position of the hydroxyl group on a single asymmetric carbon dioxide (carbon 4)
A pair of diastereomers that fluctuate only inside the configuration of a single carbon atom are said to be epimers. Epimers H H HO HO L O OH H They would OH CH2OH H L HO They would H O OH L OH OH CH2OH...